Research on Envenomation by “Harmless” Snakes of Thailand

Akimoto, R., et al. 1991. A case of defibrination syndrome due to Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi (Rhabdophis t. tigrinus) bite, treated with antivenom. The Snake 23(1): 36-39.

This snake is not found in Thailand, but we do have the closely related (same genus) “Rhabdophis subminiatus.”

Broaders, M., and M. F. Ryan. 1997. Enzymatic properties of the Duvenoy’s secretion of Blanding’s tree snake (Boiga blandingi) and of the mangrove snake (Boiga dendropila). Toxicon 35(7): 1143-1148.

Burger, W.I. 1975. A case of mild envenomation by the mangrove snake, Boiga dendrophilia. Snake 7: 99-100.

Cable, D., W. McGehee, et al. 1984. Prolonged defibrination after a bite from a ‘nonvenomous’ snake. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 251(7): 925-6.

Cox, Merle J. Serious effects from the bite of the red cat-eye snake, Boiga nigriceps. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 23(10): 162.

De Lisle, H.F. 1984. Boiga cyanea (Green Cat-eye Snake): Envenomation. Herpetological Review 15(4): 112.

DeLisle, H.F. 1982. Venomous colubrid snakes. Bull. Chic. Herpetol. Soc. 17: 1-17.

Ferlan, I., et al. 1983. Preliminary studies on the venom of the colubrid snake Rhabdophis subminatus (red-necked keelback). Toxicon 21(4): 570-574.

Fry, Bryan G., et al. 2003. Analysis of Colubroidea snake venoms by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry: evolutionary and toxinological implications. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 17: 2047-2062.

Fukushima, H. 1986. Clinical aspects of bite by Yamakagashi, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Journal of the Kagoshima Society of International Medicine 18: 60-85.

Hoffmann, J. J., M. Vijgen, et al. 1992. Haemostatic effects in vivo after snakebite by the red-necked keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Blood-Coagul-Fibrinolysis 3(4): 461-4.

Iddon, D. and R. D. Theakston 1986. Biological properties of the venom of the red-necked keel-back snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 80(3): 339-44.

Mather, H.M., S. Mayne, and T.M. McMonagle. 1978. Severe envenomation from “harmless” pet snake. British Medical Journal 1: 1324-1325.

McKinstry, D.M. 1983. Morphologic evidence of toxic saliva in colubrid snakes: a checklist of world genera. Herpetological Review 14: 12-15.

Mittleman, M.B., and R.C. Goris. 1974. Envenomation from the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie). Herpetologica 30: 113-119.

Mittleman, M.B., and R.C. Goris. 1978. Death caused by the bite of the Japanese colubrid snake Rhabdophis tigrinus (Boie) (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 12(1): 109-111.

Mori, K., S. Hisa, et al. 1983. [A case of severe defibrination syndrome due to snake (Rhabdophis tigrinus) bite]. Rinsho. Ketsueki 24(3): 256-62.

Ogawa, H., and Y. Sawai. 1986. Fatal bite of the yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus). Snake 18: 53-54.

Saddler, M., and B. Paul. 1988. Vine snake envenomation. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 34: 31-33.

Sakai, A., et al. 1984. Study on the toxicity of venoms expressed from Duvernoy’s gland of certain Asian colubrid snakes. The Snake 16: 16-20.

Smeets, R. E., P. G. Melman, et al. 1991. Severe coagulopathy after a bite from a ‘harmless’ snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). J. Intern. Med 230(4): 351-4.

Yoshie, S., et al. 1988. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of nerves n the Duvernoy’s gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 51(5): 459-466.

Yoshie, S., et al. 1982. Fine structure of Duvernoy’s gland of the Japanese colubrid snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 45(4): 375-384.

Zotz R.B., Mebs D., Hirche H. and Paar D. 1991. Hemostatic changes due to the venom gland extract of the red-necked keelback snake (Rhabdophis subminiatus). Toxicon 29(12):1501-1508.

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